The Final Straw

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SCBActs 18:6 (the final straw between Paul and the Jewish opposition to him)

But when they opposed Paul and became abusive, he shook out his clothes in protest and said to them, “Your blood be on your own heads! I am innocent of it. From now on I will go to the Gentiles.”

It is obvious in our studies that almost without fail Jewish leaders harassed Paul even following him after leaving a particular synagogue or town. As soon as those Jews in a previous town heard he had moved on to another synagogue in another part of the country or world, they sent men to disrupt his activities and Christianization of those in that town. ­­Emperor Claudius also had an issue with this Jewish trait of kicking a horse after it was down in order to force it to go a few more inches.

Somehow these Jewish Synagogue oppressors of Paul could start riots anywhere they went as long as the people in these other areas were also entrenched in Synagogue traditions and rules. How they did it is a matter of history… they accused him and accurately so of violating “the way it had always been;” i.e. traditional worship and way of life.

When Paul “gave up on his fellow Israelites” and the Sanhedrin bunch, he set a precedent for us today. Our job is NOT to convert or force others to take action. As we know from the Learning Pyramid (background on this page), the best one can do is take another up to the point of knowledge and hopefully understanding. The BIG BUT is that the listener must make a choice; accept this new knowledge and desire a change or reject it leaving it behind, and as in Paul’s life, try to destroy the messenger. Paul walked away shaking the dust from his garment hem and sandals; i.e. Acts 18:6.

Jews “oppose and blaspheme” the gospel and the Lord Jesus Christ, who is at its center. In an acted out parable or demonstration of “shaking the dust off out his robes,” Paul disassociates himself from the Jews for several reasons. He wants to be clear per the eventual judgment from God that their blasphemy will incur. He wants them to know that their rejection of the message places them in the same position as unbelieving Gentiles; facing the same justice and judgment of God in the final days of the world as we now know it. He wants to declare his freedom from any further responsibility for their eternal destiny (Nehemiah 5:13; Luke 9:5; 10:10-11; Acts 13:46, 51). He cannot act as their conscience and elicit conviction or a better understanding. Using Old Testament phraseology (2 Sam 1:16; compare Mt 27:24-25), Paul’s declaration of “I can do no more” says as much. Their guilt and coming punishment are their own responsibility. This is true of all mankind once we stand at the Great White Throne Judgement.

This however does not mean Paul will (or you and me as be-lievers) should cease trying or actively sharing the gospel. Paul changes locations and target markets (switching from targeting Jews to the Greeks/Gentiles) but does not change the message. God is the same regardless of location. In light of the vision of Revelation 5:9-10 and 7:9-10–“a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language, standing before the throne and in front of the Lamb”–it is right for us today to claim the promises and obey the commands of Acts 18:9-10.

Paul was in trip #2 of his three missionary journeys. Somewhere between 44 A.D. and 51 A.D. Emperor Claudius had ordered all of the Jews in Italy to “leave the country.” This is very true of Aquila and Priscilla. Paul meets this couple from Italy and is immediately sees their love of God. They, as was Paul, were tent-makers (Acts 18:1-3). This missionary couple from Italy is mentioned 6 different times in scripture. Acts 18 is the first time we hear of them but always named as a couple. Perhaps 15 or 16 years later, when Paul is near death and writing his final letter to Timothy in Ephesus, he urges Timothy, “Greet Priscila and Aquila” (2 Tim 4:19). They were still active missionaries of the church and alive.

dodgeEmperor Claudius had issued his “get out of Dodge” (Italy) order specifically because Jews had an overwhelming tendency to be trouble makers. Paul had experienced this several times during his journeys. Just as their traditional religious adherence issues with Paul, they couldn’t leave it alone. Wherever these traditionalists went, trouble-making was their sole purpose. One might say they pursued it. They followed Paul from Synagogue to Synagogue causing riots in each city that resulted in Paul being stoned or escaping with his life at night.

In Acts 18:12 through verse 17 Paul is hauled before a secular court of Gallio by the Synagogue leaders for teaching a way of worshiping God that is contrary to Judaism. “It is against our laws”…traditions if read carefully. Gallio was the governor of this Roman province therefore the judicial branch of their court system. We read that they forced Paul in front of *Gallio.

*JIV: This to me means or supports a somewhat partial view of separation of church and State. Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus or Gallio was a Roman senator, governor of Achaia and brother of the famous writer Seneca. He is best known in secular histories for his impartial judgment of a legal case involving Paul the Apostle in Corinth. Since Gallio’s tenure as Governor of this territory can be traced to around 52/53 A.D., we can also date Paul to this same date.

JIV NOTE: One should also understand that the Titius mentioned in Acts 18:7 should not be confused with the Titus to which Paul later wrote the Book (letter to) Titus. Another confusion can be the mentioning of Crispus (v8) and Sosthenes (v17) as the Chief Ruler in that Synagogue. Some historians suggest that Crispus, who accepted Christ through Paul’s ministry, was later replaced by Sosthenes as Chief Priest. After all, Paul remained in Corinth for about 18 months. Here are the options due to the mentioning of Sosthenes in 1 Corinthians 1:1 as joining the Apostle Paul. Here are the options. Crispus is mentioned once again again in 1 Corinthians 1:14. We teach – You Decide

  1. Crispus was replaced by Sosthenes as the chief priest after Crispus accepted Jesus as the Messiah.
  2. Crispus and Sosthenes are one and the same person.

Fascinating as a point of knowledge… since 1 Corinthians 1:1 identifies Paul and Sosthenes as sending greetings to the church in Corinth, one might also suggest Sosthenes co-authored at least part of the letter to the Corinthian church. They both hailed from Corinth and the new church established there.

 

cropped-minijim1Dr. Jstark

June, 2018

The History of Acts Part 3

Background to the Acts of the Apostles

  1. The author:
      1. Luke was not an eyewitness to the life of Christ (Luke 1:14), but he was a participant in many of the events of Acts (Acts 16: 10­ 17; 20:5­-21:18; 27:1­-28:16).
      2. Like Paul, he came on the scene after the life of Christ on earth.
      3. He was with Paul at Rome during the imprisonment with which Acts closes rather abruptly. Acts 28:30, ­31; cf. Colossians 4: 14; Philemon 24.
    1. When was Acts written?
      1. Acts closes abruptly with Paul under house arrest at Rome awaiting the outcome of his appeal to Caesar.
      2. The most reasonable explanation for the book’s leaving us in the dark as to the outcome of the appeal is that the case had not yet been decided when Luke wrote.
      3. Paul and his company arrived at Rome in the spring of A.D. 60 and stayed there “two whole years” before going to trial. Acts 28:30.
      4. Thus Acts may have been written sometime in or shortly after 62 A.D., just before Paul’s trial and initial release to go to Iberia/Spain where large numbers of Jews lived.
      5. Note: Tradition tells us that Paul undertook additional missionary labors following his release, perhaps in Spain; i.e. Iberia. Cf. Rom.15:24­-28.
    2. The title of this book: The Acts of the Apostles.
      1. The book certainly does not tell all the acts of all the apostles; it doesn’t even relate some of the acts of the other apostles.
      2. Some have suggested that a more descriptive title might be the Acts of the Holy Spirit and the Church Known as The Way; early Christians were not called Christians.

Additional Background to the Acts of the Apostles

  1. Luke was a physician (Col.4:14), and his medical background and interests seem to appear at times.
    1. He uses medical terms (“convulsed” (thrown down, ASV) and “examine” (look upon, ASV) in Luke 4:35 and 9:38.)
    2. In Jesus’ saying about the camel and the needle’s eye, Luke uses the technical term for a surgeon’s needle/awl eye (trumalia); Matthew and Mark use another word (trupēma) which refers to a needle of whatever variety. Luke 18:25; cf. Matt.19:24; Mark 10:25.
  • Saul did not merely have his sight restored, but “there fell from his eyes as it were scales”; he then “took food and was strengthened.” Acts 9:18­19.
    1. This eyesight restoration leads this author to believe his “thorn in the side” was not his eyesight
  1. Publius’ father “lay sick of fever and dysentery.” Acts 28:8.
  1. Why did Luke write?
    1. He saw the need to commit to writing an accurate account of the beginning and spread of Christianity. THE CHURCH. Luke 1: 1­4.
    2. It chronicles the triumph of the gospel over the hearts of men in a hostile world. Acts 2:47b; 6:7; 9:31; 12:24; 16:5; 19:20; 28:30, ­31.

The Message of the Book of Acts

  1. Acts traces the spread of the gospel from Jerusalem to Antioch to Rome.
    1. A simple outline of the book can be formulated on the basis of Jesus’ statement at Acts 1:8.
      1. In Jerusalem. Acts 1:1­8
      2. In Judea and Samaria. Acts 8:4­; 11:18.
  • In the uttermost parts of the world. Acts 11:19; ­28:31.
  1. As he was moved by the Holy Spirit, Luke showed how the purpose of God to save mankind was being worked out in human history.
  2. Its (gospel message) spread throughout the larger Roman Empire mainly through the efforts of Paul and the dispersed church of believers by the Sanhedrin and anti-Christian Rome.
    1. Paul always began his preaching in each city among its Jewish population in a local Synagogue. Acts 13:5,14; 14:1; 16:13; 17:1,10,17; 18:4; 19:8; 28:17.
    2. Rejection by the Jews led to preaching among the Gentiles. Acts 13:46. 

Major Themes and/or Issues in the Book of Acts

  1. The reliability of Luke as an historian.
    1. In the last century, critical thought, generally in Germany, held that Acts was a second century document from a third-­rate historian.
    2. Research in geography, archaeology, and history have so thoroughly vindicated Acts’ trustworthiness as a document from the first century that such criticisms now appear absurd.
  • Sir William Ramsay (1852 – 1916) was trained in and accepted the German critical theories until he began archaeological work in Asia Minor. He was forced to abandon the attitude he had learned toward Acts and eventually became one of the most ardent defenders of Luke’s reliability. Cf. Ramsay’s The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament (1915).
  1. Acts reflects details that only a first­ century author who was personally familiar with them could have related. He had great insight from befriending Apostle Paul.
  2. Luke knew, for example, that . . .
    1. Cyprus, Achaia, and Asia were senatorial provinces governed by proconsuls. Acts 13:7; 18:12; 19:38.
    2. The chief magistrates of Thessalonica were called ”politarchs.” Acts 17:6,8.
    3. The leading men of Ephesus were “Asiarchs.” Acts 19:31.
    4. Laws and customs of the Roman world conformed to patterns that we have only recently been able to corroborate.
  3. Luke is now known to display a minute accuracy of detail which is unsurpassed in ancient literature.
  1. Some special features of Acts.
    1. The geography of the book involves three key cities.
      1. Jerusalem is the base for the church’s evangelistic activity among the Jews for the first 12 chapters with Apostle Peter.
      2. Antioch is the center of activity among the Gentiles in chapters 13­:21 with Apostle Paul.
      3. Rome is the city of Paul’s evangelistic enterprise as the book comes to a close.
    2. In terms of central personalities, Peter and Paul dominate respective halves of the book. Luke was a colleague of Paul and knew Peter by association.
      1. Peter, apostle to the circumcision [Jews and Israelis], is the central figure of the first 12 chapters.
      2. Paul, apostle to the uncircumcision [Greeks], is the principle of the remainder.
      3. Even the miracles they performed in confirmation of their apostleship are recorded in parallel: healing lame men (Acts 3:2; Acts 14:8), “miracles of harm” (Acts 5:1; Acts 13:6), healings through secondary means (Acts 5:15; Acts 19:12), casting out demons (Acts 5:16; Acts 16:18), confronting sorcerers (Acts 8:18; Acts13:6), and raising the dead (Acts 9:36; Acts 20:9).
  • The activity of the Holy Spirit is given great notice in Acts.
    1. The outpouring of the Spirit on Pentecost is in many ways the central event of the book. Acts 1:4­5; 2:1-­13.
    2. The message preached and the signs performed in its confirmation are all attributed to the power of the Holy Spirit.
  1. The early expansion of the church.
    1. In the earliest days of the church, the church was confined to Jerusalem.
    2. The persecution of Christians by the Jewish leadership following Stephen’s martyrdom led to evangelization in the areas of Judea and Samaria. Acts 8:1.
      1. Philip preached in Samaria. Acts 8:4-­25.
      2. He converted an Ethiopian seeking understanding. Acts 8:26-­39.
      3. He preached in the Gentile city of Caesarea. Acts 8:40.
  • The first recorded instance of Gentile conversion is Peter’s experience with Cornelius. Acts 10.
    1. This met with objections. Acts 11:1­3
    2. As a result, however, the right of Gentiles to hear the gospel was affirmed. Acts 11:4­-18.
  1. Near the time of Cornelius’ conversion (A.D. 40?), the gospel came to Antioch.
    1. Preaching was first to the Jews. Acts 11:19.
    2. An outreach was begun among the Gentiles. Acts 11:20­-21.
    3. Cornelius is the first recorded Greek conversion to The Way (Christianity)
  2. Antioch of Syria now becomes the center of activity in the book.
  1. The missionary tours of Paul.
    1. The church at Antioch was founded by fugitives from Saul’s persecution of Jewish converts to Christianity in Jerusalem. Acts 11:19.
      1. Many Gentiles were also converted in this city. Acts 11:20,­ 21.
      2. The brethren at Jerusalem sent Barnabas to investigate this unusual situation. Acts 11:22­, 24.
    2. Barnabas decided to seek the help of Saul now called Paul in building up the church at Antioch. Acts 11:25, ­26.
      1. He had shown confidence in Paul earlier, shortly after his conversion. Acts 9:26, ­27.
      2. Now he would bring him into a situation where the Lord’s providence was to give an opportunity for the greatest missionary efforts in all history other than possibly Billie Graham.
      3. Note: This is three years after Saul’s conversion. We do not know what was happening in his life during that time. Galatians 1: 15­-24.