Hosea – Article #4

Mount Hermon panorama – northern Israel

We are in the 2nd chapter of Hosea. In the previous article we covered the naming of the three children of Gomer. Recall that Gomer is symbolic of the Northern Kingdom of Israel; her offspring the people of these ten Tribes of Israel. From the reading of chapter #1, it is probable that Hosea’s first born son was of his union with Gomer. There is debate per the next two children; Lo-Ruhamah, I will show no mercy. You are guilty as accused) and Lo-Ammi (You are not (no longer) my people because you have put a distance between me (God) and you.)

Chapter 3 [next article] ends the discussion of Hosea, Gomer and the three children as a family. Some of the language in these first three chapters applies to Hosea’s family literally. Some of it applies to the nation (all 12 tribes) figuratively. Some of the language applies to both but in different settings.

It is in Hosea 3:1-5 that Hosea is told to recover for a fee his wife from the slave market. She had fallen so far away and down that she was no longer just a prostitute of desire but a slave owned by a master. After re-purchasing her, she was quarantined by Hosea. This is about a future with which Hosea was not a part of…yet. Israel fell into bondage by totally mixing with those who were heathen; i.e. simply put non-believers but perhaps very religious. This is more than symbolism. It is prophecy; prophecy that has come true in part and some that remains in the timing of God the Father. Always remember that God identifies Israel as HIS bride. Jesus identifies the Church of believers as his bride.

The first born of Hosea, Jezreel, means two things per Israel as referenced in chapter three of Hosea. The ten tribes to the north plus the Kingdom of Judah to the south will be scattered to the four corners of the earth. This has been fulfilled. The Valley of Jezreel, also known as the Valley of Megiddo, is where Jesus will begin to regather the same Tribes of Israel. But a price had to be paid. That, my friends, is the Cross of Calvary. Now the price has been paid, but recall there is a hiatus between paying the price and full reunification of all Israelis. Hosea sequestered Gomer after buying her back from the slave market, but we cover this in our next article; chapter 3. [C.f. Read Hosea 1:11]

Back to Chapter Two

Back to Chapter Two

Note in the first verse of Hosea 2 that the “Lo” has been dropped from the names of LO-Ammi and Lo-Ruhamah. We can assume from this that we are no longer seeing God look at them as “LO”; i.e. NOT to any longer be HIS children scattered to the four corners of the Earth. This is a future tense as in prophetic. But then in the next two verses we see that Israel being stripped naked and made a wilderness was not fulfilled for another 120 years. This is when the Southern Kingdom of Judah was “stripped” of her people by Nebuchadnezzar. Now, all of the lands of David and Solomon were laid bare. Its occupants scattered abroad to the hinterlands.

Hosea 2:4-6 takes us back to prophecy and the path to it. “I will build a wall against her, so that she cannot find her paths. … Then she shall say, ‘I will go and return to my first husband, for it was better for me then than now.’

This wall or barriers to Israel finding her way to or out of self-destruction will be a path bordered by thickets, briars, dangers, and wanderings. Amazingly we see this coming together almost daily and in recent history.

We have discussed possible bible codes per names in previous articles. If we read Hosea’s children’s names as one statement it would read…”Retribution, the hour of punishment has come. I will show no more mercy. You are guilty as accused; no longer my children.”

Hosea 2:9-12 spells out the lack of mercy and the retribution. Verse 13 explains the WHY…but, in verse 14 we find an incredible forgiveness. I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak tenderly to her.” …and speak tenderly to her? This sounds more like affection than it does continued retributions. Hosea 2:14 gives us more insight.

And there I will give her vineyards and make the *Valley of Achor a door of hope. And there she shall answer as in the days of her youth, as at the time when she came out of the land of Egypt.”

*The Valley of Anchor takes us back to Joshua 7 and a man named Achan. Space does not permit but Achan had committed a sin for which all of Israel under Joshua was suffering. Here he paid the ultimate price as did his possessions and family. This released Israel from more retribution from God. This is why Hosea states that the Valley of Achor is a door of hope. It is where the wandering Tribes of Israel were released from additional consequences of Achan’s sin.

In Hosea 2:18, then through the end of chapter 2, we find the beginnings of rewards for being chosen by God. This passage is often quoted and pictures depict, but few today know the address of this NEW covenant mentioned in Hosea between God and Israel.

(ASV) And in that day will I make a covenant for them [Israel] with the beasts of the field, and with the birds of the heavens, and with the creeping things of the ground: and I will break the bow and the sword and the battle out of the land, and will make them to lie down safely. [Hosea 2:18]

This passage seems a bit of a stretch to parallel or juxtapose the world to this promise between Israel, God and nature itself. Hosea specifically points this covenant to Israel beginning in the Valley of Anchor.

It may be of particular value to understand this is END TIME Prophecy. V19 says in the NKJV…”I will betroth you to me FOREVER.” Forever means forever. It is the beginning of eternity; an eternal promise. The final verse in Hosea 2 is both exciting and promising.

Hosea 22:23b Then I will say to those who were not my people, ‘You are my people!’ And they will say ‘You are my God.’” [C.f. Hosea 1:10]

Rev. Dr. Jstark
Written April 2020

PS: Gavin Finley, MD wrote the following in May of 2004. It is so pertinent to us today.

We want a revival. But we want it our way and on our terms. We forget that we serve a sovereign God. For many of us the very idea of God upsetting our carefully maintained command and control systems in the status quo is a real shock. Most of us are completely unaware of the end-time Revival and how it will happen in the trials and travails of the woman of Revelation 12. We have not been told about this before. But we must face the Holy Scriptures squarely and honestly here. We must search the scriptures and discover for ourselves what the Bible is telling us in true and faithful Berean fashion. Then we must believe what the Holy Scriptures and the Holy Spirit is telling us.

Hosea – Article #3

Hosea – Article #3 (Chapter 1)


Nothing feels worse than being separated from God. One doesn’t even know it
until s/he returns to Him. Only then does that void become evident.

This is the condition of Northern Kingdom of Israel at the time of Hosea. They have not yet returned as of this writing – 2020. The Southern Kingdom of Judah is not far behind but it is still a descendant of King David who sits on their throne (760-722 B.C.). Hosea tries to get his people in the north to realize their separation; that intimate separation from their God Jehovah. However, Israel (Northern Kingdom) has plenty of religion but little to no commitment to God.

JIV STUDY NOTE: Hosea is identified as one of the twelve Minor Prophets. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel are considered the Major Prophets. These are man-assigned identities because the minor prophet books are shorter in length but not lacking content or purpose. We say this so if intellectually challenged by a naysayer who claims that Daniel is a shorter book than is Hosea, they are correct. These are man-assigned identities not supported by scripture.

The Minor Prophets warned against godless alliances (adultery typified) with other nations. These prophets were extremely patriotic and denounced political and moral corruption by intermingling with others outside of Israel. They warned Israel against an isolationism from God and a integration with outsiders. This reminds us of Romans 12:1; be not conformed to this world, BUT be transformed by the renewing of one’s mind and soul. This union of Israel with outsiders gradually led them to conform to other than Godly standards. We do the same thing in our churches when we have come to think that a worship service includes anyone. This, just as Israel, makes us unequally yoked with nonbelievers. We don’t bring them to church to give them a religious experience but that too often is just what they get. We hope that they may find God even when they are not seeking God. They oblige your invite but usually for the religious experience. We as in the Book of Acts should witness to them on the streets, in our homes, in child bible clubs, or evangelistic meetings, lead them to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ, and then bring them into the fold of believers as equally yoked to worship. Need evidence? Study the Book of the original church; i.e. the Book of Acts.

J. Vernon McGee puts it this way…

The accusation is often made that the present–day pulpit is weak and uncertain. Furthermore, it is charged that instead of being a “… voice … in the wilderness …” (John 1:23), the modern pulpit has settled down comfortably to become a sounding board for the whims and wishes of an indifferent people with itching ears (in attempts to fill the pews; i.e. megachurch status. If this charge is true (and in many cases it is), it is because the pulpit is reluctant to grapple with the great issues of life. This hesitancy is born of a desire to escape criticism and a dread of becoming offensive to the finer sensibilities. (Emphasis mine)

Hosea 1:1 identities our book’s content of who, when, and where of this setting. Hosea is commanded to break the Mosaic Law by marrying an adulterous woman. Mosaic Law said to have her stoned. God commanded Hosea to marry her. This in and of itself did not bring cessation of adulterous life. But then, Israel was doing the same thing with her spiritual Husband God.

In v3, we find that she conceived… (KJV) So he went and took Gomer the daughter of Diblaim; which conceived, and bare him a son. We do not know if her two sons and one daughter were actually offspring of Hosea. What we do know is he named them according to God’s command. Gomer had two sons and one daughter.

  1. Jezreel: There is so much history connected to this name but we will keep our comments within the name meaning and its context of Hosea. Some translate the name as “God sows.” Others translate it as “May God gives seed.” Yet another translates identifies it as “God scatters.” It all adds up to a seed once together in a seed bin will be scattered and reproduce in a similar manner as we find in the New Testament…Matthew 13:20-22; Mark 4:5 Luke 8:6-23. The same seed scenario Hosea prophesied about the Northern Kingdom. Sadly Hosea lived to see this dispersion or scattering; completed around 721 B.C. The Assyrians finished scattering the ten Northern Tribes throughout the entire known lands, fields and plains of the Earth.

JIV STUDY NOTE: In a previous article I made comment and insight about my banker in my hometown, a full-blooded and native of Hawaii. In our conversations I observed that he struggled pronouncing the letters “sh” when used in a word. What has this to do with the “scattering of the northern Tribes of Israel’ and Hosea 1:4 & 6? Judges 12:5-6 tells us that the Tribe of Ephraim also had this same DNA difficulty. A remnant of Ephraim was scattered as far as the Pacific islands…2700 years after the Assyrian exile of this tribe. Hmmmmmm?

view of the Jezreel Valley from mount Precipice.

Hosea 1:5 tells us that there is also a Valley of Jezreel “to break the bow of Israel in the Valley of Jezreel. Over 32 battles have been fought in this valley. It is also renown for another battle yet to be fought…Armageddon.

Hosea 1:5 indicates that this is where the Northern Kingdom lost its final war with Assyria before the entire kingdom was exiled them.

Hosea 1:6 gives us the birth and name of the second child of Gomer. Hosea was told by God to name her *Lo-ruhama. The name means “NO MERCY.” To better understand this No Mercy we must back up one verse. Hosea 1:4 states that “the blood of Jezreel (valley?) will cause the cessation of the King and kingdom of Jehu.” This means that the Assyrian defeat of King Jehu of Israel will be (was) the beginning of their exile as a kingdom of the same seed. The blood of his kingdom was shed in the Valley of Jezreel.

*Lo in Hebrew means Not or No just as in English to say “a”typical; not typical.

Hosea 1:7 tells us that God Jehovah determined to have mercy on the Israelites of the Southern Kingdom of Judah…for a little while. This verse seems out of context per the rest of this chapter, but the intended message is not. 2 Kings 19:35 tells the what happened. The same Assyrians that destroyed the ten Tribes to the north (Kingdom of the North) also attacked Judah. The Assyrians lost 185,000 troops in one night. The Angel of the Lord did the work. When the Judean Armies woke up one morning to do battle, the encamped Assyrian army was no more. All enemy troops had been destroyed during the night by the angel.

Also a small word is “mercy” in verse 7 needs explanation. Only the guilty can seek mercy. The innocent may be given leniency. This verse in Hosea 1:7 finds the word “MERCY.” This does not mean that the kingdom of Judah is or was somehow innocent. Hosea 1:7 states that God will have MERCY upon Judah. Yes, they too were guilty and will pay a severe price or prison term. Their punishment came about 120 years later when Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar marched on Jerusalem and took it captive. Three different groups of Judeans and those within the kingdom were removed from their Promised Land. We read this in greater detail in our articles on the Book of Daniel.

Verse 8 and 9 in Hosea 1 need to be understood as if one statement. “Now when she (Gomer) had weaned Lo-ruhamah, she conceived, and bare a son. And Jehovah said, Call his name Lo-ammi; for ye are not my people, and I will not be your God.” God does not move (omnipresent) but we as his creation have a free-will. James 4:8 says if we draw close to God, he will draw close to us (paraphrased). The idea in Hosea 1:8 & 9 is that Israelites had fallen so far away from God that HE would no longer be in communication with them; even from a distance. They were no longer his with whom to communicate and bless as his chosen.

This is choice and FREE-WILL in full color. We can opt to walk away from God and not have him as the center of our lives. Judah to the south had a few more Godly kings so they were shown “mercy.” Guilty? YES! Kingdom of Israel had fallen so far back they were no longer God’s people. The word “people” in verse 1:9 is ‛am…collectively meaning a “troop or attendants.” It does not mean they were no longer his chosen. The next verse explains this.

Hosea 1:10-11 pulls these separated kingdoms back together as ONE; an inference to the millennial reign of Christ in Jerusalem when he calls his chosen from the four corners of the Earth. 1:10b states (KJV) “…that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people, there it shall be said unto them, Ye are the sons of the living God.” Where is the statement “in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people” actually mean per geography? This is Megiddo; Armageddon! That is…The Valley of Jezreel; Hosea’s name for his first son. Verse 11 needs no explanation…”Then the children of Judah and the children of Israel will be gathered together.”

There may be a bit of irony is Hosea’s second son’s name; Lo-Ammi. We already explained the name’s meaning…”You are no longer my children and I am not your God.” There is the possibility that even if the first two children born to Gomer and perhaps Hosea, this verse may also have a double implication. You are not my child and I am not your father. This may be a pregnancy born out of Gomer’s continued prostitution or adultery, thus the third child…Lo (not) Ammi (mine).

Here is a JIV summary of the names.

Jezreel: The seed of Israel is sown throughout the earth, but will return to the Valley of Jezreel

Lo-Ruhamah: I will show no mercy. You are guilty as accused

Lo-Ammi: You are not (no longer) my people because you have put a distance between me (God) and you.

Have you moved?

New Testament parallel…if one does not feel as close to God or his son Jesus as s/he once did, guess who one moved?

Hosea Article #2

We gave a brief introduction to Hosea in article #1. In our research and studies it is startling to find other commentaries of such great length on such a short book in the Old Testament.

Douglas Stuart has a 220 page commentary on Hosea
David A. Hubbard has a 237 page commentary on Hosea
Francis I. Anderson has an unbelievably large commentary of 720 pages

In reading some of these commentaries per our research there are times one forgets it is about the Minor Prophet Hosea. Good writing and very informative none-the-less.

Hosea 1:2 The *beginning of the speaking of Jehovah by Hosea. And Jehovah said to Hosea, Go, take to yourself a wife of harlotry, and children of harlotry. For the land has utterly gone lusting away from Jehovah. [LITV]

*Here is one example of the verbiage distinctiveness of Greek and Hebrew. The word beginning in English is not as distinctive as in the Hebrew. In Genesis 1:1the word “beginning” is ray-sheeth’ meaning the origin of time itself [Genesis 1:5]. In Hosea 1:2 the same English word “beginning” is tekh-il-law’ [Hebrew] meaning to commence at a given point within time itself.

Deeper perspective

This website attempts to point out these word differences to give deeper perspective and better understanding. In Hosea the word “beginning” simply means at the point in time Jehovah-God spoke to Hosea.

To “take a wife of harlotry” is often debated; debated to a point of losing the point God is making. It means what it says. She has been unfaithful to a single man or husband. She may have even been a Temple Prostitute or unfaithful to Hosea AFTER they marry. Some theologians want to make this an allegory such as Jesus used parables. No matter, it is an example or living example of how Israel has played the role of a harlot nation. They have sold their allegiance to foreign gods (idols) or put other things in life ahead of or replacing communing with their husband-God.

The same is true of the phrase “children of harlotry.” Some want to make this to mean children begotten through harlotry; not from Hosea himself. Others want to make this to mean offspring of Hosea’s seed through one that has been unfaithful. What matters is the last sentence in this verse… [YLT] “..for utterly go a-whoring doth the land (10 Israeli Tribes of the Northern Kingdom) from after Jehovah.” In New Testament Church terms this would be the same thing as going to church because one seeks out the church or denomination of choice; a false god. Does s/he seek to have fellowship with other believers within a group setting with a focus of worship or political correctness? [Mark 7:13; Matthew 15:3]

If the latter is true, what does it mean to worship God the Father (husband of Israel) in a church setting that welcomes unbelievers and still call it worship? We have already put the church into a Hosea situation. This is called unequally yoked; worshiping with unbelievers or church goers of tradition. No wonder people give testimonies of things that happened years ago instead of yesterday or last week. They can’t because they are mixing and blending in with the world even in a worship service. [See below JIV NOTE]

JIV NOTE: Yes, I will receive flack on this from readers. However, get serious. How does one wear a Chicago Cubs T-shirt versus Cleveland Indians and sit on the side of the Cleveland Indians, cheering for the Cubs at the ball park…unequally yoked. Right? But the same stadium (church?).

Hosea is stating that Israel has sold out and is only pretending to be a fan of the God who brought them out of Egypt after 400 plus years of bondage in Egypt. Today’s church is all about filling the pews with bodies, not believers.

Bodies or Believers

For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because they have not believed in the name of God’s one and only Son.

Hosea – Article #1

Hosea Article #1
An 8th century Minor Prophet

Here are two examples of New Testament scripture and one personal observation. By comparative context New Testament John and Matthew with Old Testament Hosea, we find a basic overview of or insight into the Book of Hosea:

  1. John 15:7 “If you abide in me and my WORDS abide in you, you shall ask what you will and it will be done (or given) unto you.”
  2. Matthew 6:33 “Seek [you] first the kingdom of God AND his righteousness, and all these things will be added unto you.”
  3. JIV (Jim’s Introspective View) Anything that is given priority over God in our entirety of life is an idol!

There is much more. This series of Hosea articles with chapter by chapter and comparative context explanations will include historical and future unfulfilled prophecy parallels. When one has a good grasp of John 15:7 and Matthew 6:33, s/he finds a summary of the major focal points of Hosea. We should also recognize and distinguish that Hosea, as do other Old Testament passages, explains that God is the husband of Israel [Jeremiah 31:32]; Jesus is the husband of the New Testament church [Ephesians 5:31-32]. We will have much more on this throughout this Hosea series.

The Orthodox Church of America puts it this way in introducing Hosea:

Almost a thousand years before the coming of the Savior, and through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the prophet foretold the end of sacrificial offerings and of the priesthood of Aaron (Hos. 3:4-5), and that the knowledge of the True God would spread through all the earth (Hos. 2:20-23). Hosea spoke also about Christ, how He would return from out of Egypt (Hos. 11:1; compare to Mt. 2:15), that He would be resurrected on the third day (Hos. 6 and especially Hos.6:2; compare with 1 Cor.15:4), and that He would conquer death (Hos.13-14. Compare 1 Cor.15:54-55).”

Whatever the case, all 12 Tribes of Israel and Judah had adopted the mindset that if they can’t see it, it must not exist. A golden calf can be observed. The reality of the God of creation is by faith. The same is true today. So-called Christians too often see a denomination or church building as the basis of their being Christian. S/he serves the church functions but confuses their intent with serving God.

Let’s first establish some common sense knowledge and understanding of the ground work for our Hosea studies. In our previous Daniel studies we explained that the first half of the book of Daniel was originally written in the commoner’s language of the time; Aramaic. The latter half of the book was written in Hebrew. The first half of Daniel is targeted to the non-Israelite. The second half was/is intended for the particular audience of the Israelites. Hosea was a prophet-designate or appointed to the 10 Israeli tribes of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. His contemporary Amos was who came from the southern Kingdom of Judah; same peoples (Israelites) but two distinctly different prophets. These are two of the twelve Minor Prophets… one to the Northern Kingdom and one to the Southern Kingdom of the former nation of Israel. Both had the same problem. The people to whom they were told to speak and warn had not kept God at the center of their lives and worship. [Go back to the top of this page and reread the passages from James 15 and Matthew 6].

The time: It was just prior to the end of the existence of the Northern Kingdom [760 B.C. to 722 B.C.]. Syria was peeling off one or two tribes of Israel at a time. The Reubenites, Gadites and half of the tribe of Manasseh were among the first to be exiled by Assyria. Hosea was either from the Tribe of Reuben or Issachar [see Adam Clarkes Commentary]. Bura [Beeri] was his father. We do not know for sure but what we do know is that he was born in the town of Belemoth inside the *territory of Issachar.

*The 2 ½ Tribes of Israel east of the Jordan River had already been exiled by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria. This dispersion caused many to flee their tribal lands. Some went to other territories in Samaria (Northern Kingdom of Israel). Most were dispersed and exiled by the Assyrians into the hinterlands of faraway places; lands that were sparsely populated. Some fled to the lands of the Tribe of Issachar.

PS: Issachar settled Finland and Estonia after years of dispersion and scattered exile from their Promised home lands. How do we know this? During World War II General Mannerheim led the Finnish army in two separate conflicts against the Soviet Union. Astonishingly, he addressed them as ‘Men of Issachar’!

St. Jerome and some others believe Hosea to be the oldest of the Minor Prophets whose writings are in our possession. He was witness to the first captivity of four of the ten norther tribes who were exiled by King Tiglath-pileser (745-727 B.C.), and the eventual extinction of the kingdom of *Samaria by King Shalmaneser V (727-721 B.C.) in 721 B.C. Shalamaneser died before the complete exiling of the Shalamaneser. His successor son is Sargon II.

*This is the Northern Kingdom of Israel…Samaria was their capital.

Now that we know the time period within which Hosea prophesied let’s see who some of his contemporaries were. To begin with Amos plus *Jonah “of the whale” bible historical event were contemporaries of Hosea. Other contemporaries of Hosea include Micah, Isaiah, and possibly Joel (contested), and Obadiah.

*JIV NOTE: We can view the life of Jonah as one of inaction, sea action; knee action; reaction, then action. Due to the Assyrians initially overrunning and exiling the Tribes of the Northern Kingdom in the lifetime of Jonah, Amos, and Hosea, Jonah had no love affair with the people of Nineveh, Assyria. They were hated enemies. No wonder he did not want to go there.

According to 1:1, “The Word of Jehovah that was to Hosea, the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam II, the son of Joash, king of Israel.” [Literal Translation of the Holy Bible]

Hosea is the only prophet who came from the northern kingdom. Recall that he is either from the Tribes of Issachar of Reuben. Both were northern tribes. Other prophets ministered or prophesied to these ten northern Tribes of Israel but did not come from within them. A hundred plus years earlier, Elijah and Elisha witnessed to the northern kingdom but also to little avail.

JIV NOTE: The Northern Kingdom under Jeroboam II was at the zenith or apex of its power and prosperity when Hosea prophesied against it. Might we look at the world today and specifically the USA March 2020? We are/were at the zenith of our power and prosperity when the CoVid 19 coronavirus took us to our knees. Similarities? Time will prove one way or another but the thought that a simple flu bug can do what military powers have never been able to accomplish…total submission to the bug, not a person or political sphere.

In comparison to Hosea, we might also consider that the Americas were established as a place for freedom of worship. We have since prostituted ourselves to other global issues, governments, wars, and much more that redirect our focus from God Bless America to God bless me. Why should he bless us? We have deserted him, not the other way around. We must return to God so that he can return to us with blessings of his choice. [cf. James 4:8]. Religious we certainly are. Drawing closer to God?


Hosea is the person GOD specifically instructed to take as a wife, a woman of prostitution. On the surface this sounds like everything we know or have been taught per the New Testament about what is and constitutes adultery. We are told in his book that it is to exemplify or embody the condition of the Kingdom of Israel; i.e. 10 northern Tribes of Israel in their relationship to the God of Israel.

There are four major schools of thought per this relationship of Hosea/Gomer marriage and the marriage relationship of God and Israel.

  1. The entirety of Hosea is just an allegory just as were Jesus’ parables
  2. The wife (Gomer) and life of Hosea took is likened unto Israel and God. She was faithful and obedient but later became a prostitute just as Israel left its first love…God.
  3. Gomer was already a prostitute. Hosea purchased then repurchased her from slavery to be his wife. The three children she had are from Hosea.
  4. Gomer had her three children in her adultery with others. Hosea named them and took them in as his own.

Chapters 1-3 overview:

The character of Gomer: For those who have suggested Hosea bible history to be merely an allegory of the relation between God and Israel. The Hosea writings are realistic and actual recorded history. They MUST be taken literally. Among the latter, some insist that Gomer was faithful at first and later became unfaithful, others that she was unfaithful even before the marriage. This is about 750 to 760 years before the birth of Jesus.

Chapters 1, 2, & 3 are all about Hosea’s family situation, challenges, struggles, and both with his wife and with his people of the Kingdom of Israel. A good note to understand as we close Article #1: God (Hosea), Gomer (Israel as a northern kingdom), Hosea’s (Gomer’s) children represent individuals within the Tribes of the North.