Acts 23

When it was day, the Jews made a plot and bound themselves by an oath neither to eat nor drink till they had killed Paul.”

This oath comes from Acts 23:12. If these Jews stayed true to their oath, then they all died of thirst or hunger. What sinister plot is going to sway the hand of God? NONE!

none

Knowing that this period of Paul’s imprisonment in Jerusalem while under Roman protection began with his arrest and rescue by Roman Tribune Claudius Lysias, as recorded in the last chapter of Acts. This imprisonment [lasts until the conclusion of The Book of Acts]. [Coffman’s Bible Commentary]

Paul’s first defense was on the steps of the Roman Garrison’s barracks. See Acts 22 article. Keep well in mind that these are very likely to be some if not all of the same Sanhedrin bunch that condemned Jesus to the cross. Paul is not talking to a second or third generation of people. These are for the most part, the same Jewish leaders. How frustrated they must be at this point when the one they killed (Jesus) for his message did not stop the message. Paul, Peter, James, Phillip, and a large number (recall in our previous article…”thousands”) of people becoming believers and followers of this Messiah.

Acts emphasizes that simply being well-minded, good in consciousness, or sincere does not pave the path to Heaven. There is but one way to see the God the Father; it is by Jesus his only begotten son [John 6:44; John 14:6]. To be blunt…sell out to Jesus. Need more evidence? Look at John 16:2.

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SELL OUT 

[ESV] “People will tell you to *leave their synagogues and never come back. In fact, the time will come when they will think that by killing you they have done God a good service.”

*JIV NOTE: A pastor by the name of Schwartz and probably others is a modern day example of this prophecy. He accepted the pulpit call to a mid-west church in America only to be asked in very shot order to “leave” their church (synagogue). He preached the gospel and they said that there will be none of that around there.

Point being…these people as Jesus states from his own mouth in John 16:2 will be of good conscience, sincere, and well-minded. They have served god (little g) by arresting and killing Christians. It takes little knowledge to grasp at the probability of End Time leaders and Satan himself encouraging such sincerity. As we read on in Acts 23, we even personally find a time when those standing next to Paul are instructed by the High Priest Ananias to strike Paul (us) in the mouth for what Paul (we) states [Acts 23:2]. After being struck, Paul retorts that action of being struck without cause will come back right back at this high priest. What you have done to me will also me done to you. Paul did not know that this was the High Priest giving the order. He does not apologize but points out that now only did the Law of Moses forbid such action, but he, Paul, was obliged by the same Law of Moses to withhold criticizing their leadership (Acts 23: 5).

Paul may not have realized his statement to this high priest was prophetic. “Ananias was High Priest between 47 and 52 A.D. Then again up to 59 A.D. These secular dates help us to know the time period of this incident. An aside but of historical fact, Ananias was murdered by some of his own people after being acquitted of scandalous activities.” [Ananias“. Encyclopædia Britannica.] 1 (11th ed.)

In 66 C.E. The first Jewish revolt against the Romans started. It lasted until 70 or 71 C.E.

Now Paul uses his knowledge of the Sanhedrin make-up of Sadducee, Pharisee, and others. Pharisees believed in an after-life, a resurrection, final judgment and angels. The Sadducee did not. Paul brings this difference of opinion into the conference while in front of the Roman Tribune commander.

Acts 23:6… Paul knew that some of the men in the council meeting were Sadducees and some were Pharisees. So he shouted, “My brothers, I am a Pharisee and my father was a Pharisee! I am on trial here because I believe that people will rise from death.”

That comment is all it took. Now the accusers were in a fight between themselves (v6). Sadducee believed that once dead, eternally dead. No resurrection, no angels, no after life, no spirit. Once their argument got heated, the Pharisees stood up and contested that they see nothing wrong or of a crime committed by Paul (v9). The Pharisee vs. Sadducee fight got so heated and became so violent the Tribune commander ordered Paul to be taken back to the military barracks for protection.

JIV NOTE: There are not three groups of Synagogue peoples; Pharisees, Sadducees, and scribes. Both Pharisees and Sadducees had members among them that were also scribes.

We need to go back to verse 3 for some clarification. Paul called this so-called high priest a “whitewash or painted wall” that covers dirt behind it. History tells us what Paul was very likely indicating but the bible does not. Ananias had “purchased” his position of high priest. The ESV Study Bible points out that Ananias was a particularly bad high priest; a bad guy even before he became high priest. Josephus says he confiscated for himself the tithes given the ordinary priests and gave lavish bribes to Romans and also Jews (cf. Antiq. XX, 205-7 [ix.2], 213 [ix.4]). He was hated by what we would call Jewish nationalists. They wanted Israel first; others second or third. Ananias muddied this water with politics, Roman alliances, bribes, and seeking favors with a gratitude debt.

Anianias was a brutal and scheming man, hated by Jewish nationalists for his pro-Roman policies. When the [Jewish] war with Rome began in A.D. 66, the [Jewish] nationalists burned his house (cf. Jos. War II, 426 [xvii.6]) and he was forced to flee to the palace of Herod the Great in the northern part of Jerusalem (ibid., 429 [xvii.6]). Ananias was finally trapped while hiding in an aqueduct on the palace grounds and was killed along with his brother *Hezekiah (ibid., 441-42 [xvii.9]).

JIV NOTE: *Not Hezekiah the Judean King. *Rome burned the Temple to the ground in 70 C.E.

So for him to be a legal high priest in the line of Aaron was a real stretch and a whitewash facade. He wasn’t even a Levite. Paul either in ignorance or the possibility of knowing that Ananias got the office by politics and bribery did not recognize him as legitimate therefore his “whitewash” comment.

Here we find another visitation from heaven either in a vision or angelic. Verse 11 says this message from above tells Paul that what he has done in Jerusalem he must also do in Rome. This assures Paul that he is not going to die at the hands of this mob or in this city. But, this did not mean the contemptible Jews heard that message. They plotted to once again kill Paul. They go to Ananias and ask him to have the Roman Tribune bring Paul to the Sanhedrin so he could better clarify his position. While being transferred to the Sanhedrin from the military barracks these 40 some men would attack and kill Paul. We have no clue what they would do with the Roman guard with Paul.

We now see this article’s opening statement about some Jews who had taken a vow to not eat or drink until Paul is silenced by death. Once again these guys must starve to death because God had just assured Paul that he “must go to Rome.” In Acts 23:16 we discover something about Paul we did not know up to now. He had a nephew, son of Paul’s sister. His nephew heard of the plot, went to the army barracks, and told Paul. Paul sent his nephew with another soldier to the commander of the Romans in Jerusalem. He relays the same message of the plot the nephew overheard directly to the commander.

Now we see something by default. The Romans may have conquered and ruled the land but to some degree did not trust and perhaps feared Jewish revolts. Why? We find that answer in how the commander reacts. Acts 23:23 states:

Then the commander called two army officers. He said to them, “I need some men to go to Caesarea. Get 200 soldiers ready. Also, get 70 soldiers on horses and 200 men to carry spears. Be ready to leave at nine o’clock tonight.”

The Roman commander did not wish a standoff against these Jewish insurgents. He order Paul transferred out of Jerusalem immediately; by 9:00 that same evening. He sends Paul to Governor Felix along with a letter of some explanation. By now the commander had to wonder about these Jews. Why were they so determined to kill a man who some of their own leadership, the Pharisees, claimed he was not guilty of any crime against the State of Judaism.

Verse 26 is where we discover the name of this commander and Tribune…Claudius Lysias. It is in the heading of the letter to Governor Felix that Luke includes in this passage of Acts. He explains in a short note that there was almost a riot in Jerusalem requiring he call out the troops to protect a man named Paul. He ordered a command of troops to take Paul to Felix; one well prepared to defend themselves and Paul if necessary. Once out of town, the horse soldiers continue on with Paul to see Felix.

Secular histories tell us that the First Jewish War against the Romans was between 66 and 70 C.E. Now we may better understand the tensions that already existed in this land.

Governor Felix asks Paul what country is he from. Paul tells him Cilicia. He then agrees to hear the case once Paul’s accusers arrive. He is held in the great palace that King Herod had built for himself long ago.

Rev. Dr. Jstark

November 2018

Acts 22

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We left off in the previous article on Acts 21 with Paul in the middle of a riot and being beaten by the crowd. The Roman garrison troops had to stop the rioting and rescue this guy named Paul. The commander demanded to know, and since they were the law, what was going on and why was this man being beaten?

As the troops forcibly carry Paul to their barracks to protect him and sort out the cause of the riot, he pleads with the Tribune (commander) to let him speak to the crowd. They are on the steps of the Roman barracks. The final verse in chapter 21 states:

And when he (Tribune Commander) had given him permission, Paul, standing on the steps, motioned with his hand to the people. And when there was a great hush, he addressed them in the Hebrew language, saying:

Paul spoke Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic and who knows how many other languages. This should be no surprise that a Hebrew as was Paul could speak Hebrew. However, by this time many of the Israelis including the Jews of Judah had little external use of their native tongue. Some neighboring Jews couldn’t speak Hebrew. Greeks did not speak Hebrew. It is apparent in this passage that Paul switched from one language to another thus getting the attention of the crowd. Whose attention? The Jews but probably not the Gentiles.

Paul tells the Tribune commander and the crowd gathered at the foot of the Roman barrack steps that he once was an opponent of The Way and dragged many of them from their homes to be tried in the [Kangaroo] court of the Sanhedrin. He shares his conversion testimony beginning at the Road to Damascus. He shared the same experience in Acts 9:1-9; Acts 22:6-11; and Acts 26:9-20. It was HIS TESTIMONY. Many believers today have had a Damascus Road experience. We are startled and drawn to God to confess our past sins, desire His will, and begin witnessing.

see the light

SEE the LIGHT

Were there witnesses to Paul’s Damascus experience? Absolutely, they saw the bright light that blinded Paul but it did not blind them. They did not hear the voice. God sometimes has a special sermon of worship experience where we “see the light” but don’t hear the same Holy Spirit message. To some it is a message of awareness. To some the message adds knowledge and to others it provides insight or better understanding. Sometime people see the light but hear nothing. This is what happened to him on the Damascus Road.

Very revealing is what Paul tells the crowd in verse 14 of Acts 22. The God of our fathers appointed you (meaning Paul, but it is Antonius who is speaking to Paul back then) to know his will, to see the Righteous One and to hear a voice from his mouth.” To see the righteous one? There is no record of Paul seeing the Just One (KJV); righteous one (ESV). Just because there is no specific recording of him seeing Jesus, other than the bright light, does not mean it didn’t happen. One of the rules of Apostleship according to Peter is actually “seeing Jesus.” Paul spent a good deal of his writing defending the fact that he was an Apostle of Jesus.

Paul goes on with his speaking to the crowd but under the protection of the Roman Garrison in Jerusalem. He explains that one time while praying in the Temple he fell into a trance. He saw him (Jesus?) who told him to get out of Jerusalem with all haste. The people will not accept his testimony but will hate Paul. Paul presents his case to the Lord by reminding him that the Jews of Jerusalem KNOW he himself had arrested many from The Way and “unto their death.” Why should they now hate him?

We should understand at this time The Way was comprised mostly of converted Jews of Judaism. The Gentiles had no direct messenger to them. Acts 22:21 tells us… “Go, for I will send you far away to the Gentiles.” This is the verse that tells us specifically that Paul is now called to the Gentiles just as Peter had already been called to the Jews.

Acts 22:22 is the turning point for the crowd. Up to the is time the crowd of Jews listened as Paul spoke to them in Hebrew. Hebrew is the language of the Israelis and not of the Gentiles. This makes one wonder if any of the Roman troops or even the commander understood what Paul was saying. God of their Temple is the center of Judaism but not necessarily the center of their witness or being. Now Paul says he is called to share the Jesus that the Jews killed with the Gentiles.

What is very unusual about this? The Jews who hated the conversion of Jews to Christianity just heard that Paul was taking the message of the cross to the Gentiles. Why should that even bother the Jewish leadership? “Go, I will send you [Paul] to the Gentiles.” This excludes a specific mission call to the Jews by Paul, yet the crowd now goes into a frenzy. The commander (called the Tribune) of the Roman garrison orders Paul inside their barracks.roman barracks

Verse 24 gives a great deal of how to interrogate a witness back then. “They will examine him by flogging.” When Paul is stretched out to be flogged he informs them that he is a Roman citizen…by birth. The Tribune (commander) in verse 29 states that he was deeply concerned because he had simply bound Paul. The retribution upon him could be life ending.

This chapter ends by the Tribune calling, better said, ordering the local chief priests and their council to meet with him to explain their actions against a Roman citizen named Paul.

Rev. Dr. Jstark

November 2018

Acts 21

Acts 21:1-3 is the itinerary port-of-calls for Paul and his travel companions in his return to Jerusalem then Rome. In verse 3 we find them in Tyre, Syria waiting for their ship to be unloaded before embarking on his last leg to Jerusalem. Through the Spirit while in Tyre fellow believers tell Paul that Jerusalem is waiting his arrival to bind him over for trial by the Sanhedrin (Jewish Council); the same ones he once worked for as their bounty hinter of The Way (Jewish Christian) believers. Keep in mind Paul had no authority over the Greek members of The Way, but he did for those who were once within and now out of Judaism.

What it must have been for the awaiting ship to see a large group of Jesus believers kneeling on the beach in prayer then saying their goodbyes. How difficult it must have been for the believers to be forced to face up that they will no longer have their number one missionary minister.

In Acts 21:8 we once again find Phillip the Evangelist who had previously settled in Caesarea after his encounter with the Ethiopian Eunuch back in Acts 8. Go back to that chapter article to read the incredible connection between Phillip’s encounter outside of Gaza and the encounter of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba 980 years earlier. This is Phillip who is one of the seven chosen to handle the internal affairs of the church, not Phillip the Disciple of Jesus. There is room for discussion per Phillip’s identity but not in this article.

While staying at the house of Phillip, a prophet simply identified as Agabus drops in for a visit. He takes the belt of Paul and binds his own feet and wrists. He says the one whose belt this is will encounter the same treatment in Jerusalem.

“Thus says the Holy Spirit, ‘This is how the Jews at Jerusalem will bind the man who owns this belt and deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.'”

What is odd if such a word as “odd” fits here, is Paul is cautioned by many about going to Jerusalem yet in Acts 23:11 he receives the Lord’s blessing that his next stop will be Rome. Back in Acts 19:21 Paul specifically states that Jerusalem and Rome are his destinies. Why so many have cautioned Paul about this leg of his last missionary journey is not explained. What is eye opening is how many of his followers understood his determination and against their will, God wanted him in Jerusalem. It reminds us of way back in Acts 9:16 where we find God stating “I will show him (Paul) the suffering he must go through to serve me.” This is shortly after the Road to Damascus experience. The Lord is talking to Ananias in Damascus. God wanted Ananias to heal Paul’s blindness. Ananias obeyed but knew full well of SANHEDRIN SAUL’s reputation against The Way.

Acts 21:12…”Then Paul answered, ‘What are you doing, weeping and breaking my heart? For I am ready not only to be imprisoned but even to die in Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.‘” [ESV]

The word “weeping or weep” is klah’-yo. It means not to sob or cry silently but to wail loudly. What a scene this must have been to onlookers. In both cases, that of Paul and that of his followers, was nothing short of heart wrenching. But…what a great way for God to show Paul’s followers that what he taught them is now up to them to carry on per the ministry and message of the cross. How do we know they knew it was their will to keep him and not that of God? In verse 14 [ESV] we see them finally releasing him in their hearts to the will of God, not their own will.

It is at this verse we find the group of Paul’s followers and Paul himself proceeding to Jerusalem. Once there they lodged in the home of Mnason of Cyprus. He was a very early conversion to the Way and came from Cyprus just as had Barnabas. This is the only time we hear of him. He may have known Barnabas.

hotel roomJIV QUESTION: Has anyone noticed in this series of Acts articles that no one put Paul and company up in a motel? They lodged them in their own homes and supposedly fed them. In today’s church we do just the opposite. We book a room for him or her at a Motel 6 or if the guest speaker is renown s/he is put up in a Holiday Express or Inn. What little things can reveal about our hearts and true spirit.

Paul then meets with James. Significant because Luke determines to record it as the house of James in this passage of Acts. We do not know but supposition is this James is the brother of Jesus. We simply do not know but Luke saw this meeting as not one to simply relay the information of this last missionary journey but he points out that it is at the house of James. What power must have been in the testimony of Paul for James to hear of how his half-brother Jesus confronted Paul on the Road to Damascus; his conversion, then his dedication to The Way. What a thrill to serve Jesus and meet up and stay at the house of Jesus brother.

traditional.jpgFinally we get a number to relate to Paul’s missionary successes. Acts 21:20 states: “You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed.” Yes you read that correctly… thousands. Here we once again get an insight per denominational-ism and tradition in church. In Acts 21:21b we read of the TRADITIONS OF THE JEWS no longer being an issue to those of The Way. This understanding of traditions has been replaced over hundreds of years by reintroducing individual denominational traditions and customs. So much so that the customs become primary to the worship service at the expense of leaving the Holy Spirit out in the church parking lot waiting for HIS turn to come into the worship service. First the praise team, then announcements of coming events, social and otherwise, then a traditional prayer like the Lord’s Prayer, followed by some type of reading for the sake of bible reading, an offering and commitment to the building fund, comments on the most recent soup kitchen or fund raising, the social media, sign the registrar before leaving, then perhaps something from the pulpit that certainly is a politically correct sermon.

Acts 21:23…“We have four men who are under a vow; take these men and purify yourself along with them and pay their expenses…”

Vows are steeped in Jewish tradition. It is something the high priest and Sanhedrin might honor as sincerity demonstrated (shaved heads) and with a degree of traditional sincerity of their own. Purifying themselves then presenting themselves at the Temple as being under a vow may allow Paul to phase back into Jerusalem. Paul is told to “purify himself along with these other four men.” Why? To demonstrate that even Paul subjects himself to Jewish Law.

But as for the Gentiles…” (V25). Since the Gentiles are not subject to Jewish laws or the Sanhedrin, they are a different issue even though members of the same fellowship of believers; i.e. The Way.

Paul’s purification and presenting himself to the high priest as under a vow did not work. Men from Asia, those who sought to destroy him, caught sight of him in Jerusalem. So what happens? Once again they start the rumor mill. No evidence is presented but accusations abound. Even as in the United States today, people of status or public image take on a degree of guilt without evidence once accused. Before the seven days of purification are complete, Paul finds himself under the finger of false (news) accusations.it must be for a few visitors to be able to stir up the locals on charges without evidence. How dense were people back then and are even so today. The people these outsiders from Asia stirred up were the Jews of Jerusalem. But every crowd or disturbance attracts on lookers. Most of the Gentiles were outsiders per the Sanhedrin. But as it says in Acts 19, most did not even know why they were there (in the riot crowd); perhaps even many Jews. This may also be true in this riot.

How dizzying As these event unfold, the Roman soldiers needed to be called in to “rescue” Paul from the mob. When the soldiers arrived they stopped beating Paul. They had yet to learn that Paul was a Roman citizen by birth. To beat a Roman was a crime against the State. Jews doing this could be punished by death.

Rev. Dr. Jstark

November 2018

 

Acts 20

The town clerk in chapter 19 has just settled down the near riot caused over Paul converting so many to The Way that the local idol manufacturing business became threatened per survival…fewer and fewer customers. Now we step into chapter 20 as if chapter 19 didn’t even end.

Paul calls his disciples (students of The Way) together, bids them fare-thee-well and heads for Macedonia. But…by Acts 20:3 Paul once again must deal with a plot to kill him. Some might say from the pot into the fire. Paul is very good at this. He gets to Greece via Macedonia, is there only three months, hears of another plot to kill him, does a reverse and returns to Macedonia. Paul has quite an entourage with him: (v4) Sopater the Berean, son of Pyrrhus, accompanied him; and of the Thessalonians, Aristarchus and Secundus; and Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy; and the Asians, Tychicus and Trophimus. Recall that Luke and Silas are already traveling with him.

Why Paul and his companions often traveled differently is not known (v5 & 6). It is likely Paul was disguising his means and ways due to the many plots against him.

Notice that Paul still celebrated the Jewish customs; I.E. Feast of Unleavened Bread (v6). What he did NOT DO was celebrate the Judaism denomination of that day. He opted to follow Jesus Christ as Messiah [The Way] where as Judaism still anticipated and still do to this very day, the coming of their Messiah, not the return of Jesus as is true in Christendom.

In verse 7a we find something so often overlooked: And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them…” It was THE FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK!!! That would be Sunday. We hear and read of all types of theories as to how Sunday became the traditional day of worship. We won’t discuss them here but look them up. Here in Acts 20:7 it simply states they gathered together, broke bread as in supped together, Paul preached, and he moved on the next day. However, let none forget that Colossians 2:15…”Let no man criticize the day another calls his Sabbath.”

Another thing to consider is on what subject did Paul preach? Those he was speaking to had already received Jesus Christ and had been baptized. There was no New Testament at this time; they only had the Old Testament scrolls. Today’s church tends to be exclusively N.T. … much to the expense of O.T. knowledge to help a believer’s understanding. Those who do not know and understand the errors of Israel, an Old Testament example of today’s church, are destined to continue making the same errors.

Ahamoment? What is different with the original church in Acts and what we call church today? The following verses in Acts 20 are quite explicit. Not only did they break bread (dinner) together, they listened to Paul preach “all night long.” This is not the old rock and roll song “All Night Long” but it is an example of dedicated to worship, fellowship, study, listening, and togetherness.

It was evening. Acts 20:8 states that there were MANY LIGHTS in the upper room where they had gathered for discipleship. Of course, human nature has changed little since then. We don’t usually sit in windows at the church to hear the 20 to 30 minutes of preaching but some do manage to fall asleep. Eutychus, a young man, had fallen asleep sitting in the third story window where they had gathered for supper, communion and preaching, then study time. Paul never claimed to be an inspirational speaker but it was also late at night; sleep tends to creep up on humans [2 Corinthians 11:6].

ledgeWhat seems to be a bit amazing is when Eutychus falls to the ground below from the third loft (KJV) and is taken for dead, Paul simply runs down the steps to him, embraces him saying “worry not for he is not dead,” then returns to his 3rd story pulpit continuing to preach until morning light. Other then that, we know little more about Eutychus. We do not know of Eutychus’ injuries. It may be either the last time this young man falls to sleep in church or sits on the open window sill three stories up during church. In verse 12, after Paul preached on and on and on, some take Eutychus home; probably to catch up on some sleep. Nothing is said of lasting injuries or a healing by Paul.

Acts 20:13…”and they [we] went by ship but Paul went by foot” to their next appointed place of ministry. Paul probably had it in mind that a foot trip would allow him to witness while in route to Assos. Assos is in western day Turkey but called Asia at the time. It is just south of Troas which was just south of Troy. See red area on map to right; Troas and Assos

Mitylene, Chios, Samos, Trogyllium, and then Miletus. Paul wanted very much to celebrate the Jewish holiday (not a Judaism religious tradition but a *people of Israel celebration) of Pentecost in Jerusalem so he tarried not in these towns. While in Miletus he sent for the Elders in Ephesus to come to him.

We mistakenly identify Jewishness as one and the same with Judaism. That is NOT correct. The word Jews is not even used until the II Kings 16:6. This was to identify those in the Kingdom of Judah against whom the King of the Kingdom of Israeli planned to attack.

Turn to God, believe in the Lord Jesus, obey the Holy Spirit. Paul tells the elders in Miletus that they as his witness know he did this with due diligence and spoke to all who would listen. JIV Note: racial difference never enter the picture in the bible.

Pentecost to Jews and Christians is completely different as is its date!

  • The Jews celebrate Shavuot, the receiving of the Torah, on the 50th day after Pesach (Passover).
  • Christians celebrate the descent of the Holy Spirit onto the apostles on the seventh Sunday after Easter.

JIV NOTE: It might be to the student or readers understanding that the Apostle Paul is traveling on his farewell trip. He knows that he will not see any of the church (believers) again once he departs each location. He is headed to Jerusalem and from there he will be shipped off to Rome for trial. Paul knows this per Acts 20:23 where the Holy Ghost keeps telling him imprisonment and affliction await him.

Verses 28, 29, and 30 are significant. Paul calls for the attention of church leaders and elders to pay close attention to their own actions and that of the flock. He does not distinguish any difference between where each flock (church) is located but to them in a singular tense…(ESV) “the church of God.”

One can easily suggest that the differences between each Pauline “church group” were okay due to culture therefore allowing for the many denominations that exist today. However, that is NOT what Paul okay-ed. He warned in verse 29 and 30 about “wolves who will come into sheep clothesthe church” with different ideas and spins on worship trying to draw attention to themselves. This will happen as soon as Paul leaves each location.

This is the passage from where we get the saying from Jesus that “It is more blessed to give than to receive” [Acts 20:35]. Then Paul knelt with the elders and his followers along the sea shore and prayed his departing prayer for all who were present and for those to which he had lead to Christ. There was many tears shed for they knew that they would not see Paul’s face again on earth [Acts 20:38]. No! He did not recite the Lord’s Prayer and neither is it recorded that anyone ever did. Just Jesus did as an example only to a few disciples when asked how to pray, not what to pray.

Rev. Dr. Jstark – 2019